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化工产业转移加速 如何把好VOCs监测安全关?

2022-09-19 10:55:11来源:化工仪器网 阅读量:10030

导读:化工行业高能耗、高排放、带来不小的环境影响,但其高经济附加值又让人们趋之若鹜。废气、废水和废物是化工产业的主要污染物。
  近年来,危险化学品项目由江苏、浙江等东部沿海地区,向中西部、东北地区转移,并在承接转移项目的21个省份中开展为期一年的专项整治。
 
  大规模的产业转移,数量和规模突然涌入对承接地造成不小的冲击。更值得注意的是,大批量化工产业进入,环保处理基础设施欠缺、环境安全隐患曝光,承接地的环境监管承压。例如在甘肃酒泉、宁夏石嘴山等地承接东部化工项目的园区被通报批建不符、违法排污等问题。
 
  承接地的工业基础等条件欠缺,诸多化学项目面临较大的环保压力。以挥发性有机物(VOCs)为例,化工企业在生产过程中回收会用到大量的易挥发的有机溶剂,大量的VOCs逸散。同时,化工产业生产工序多,原材料种类繁杂、用量大,导致VOCs排放物成分复杂。如何在产业转移的大形势下把握好环境关,尤其是对VOCs的重点监测?
 
  环境承压度亮起“红灯”
 
  相比技术密集型产业,化工产业无需占据资金、人才密集区域,而是更看重资源和经济优势。基于上述考量,从20世纪初,我国一批化工产业从苏南往苏北、安徽、江西等沿江地区发展,2016年后由于化工集中度增高带来的安全隐患,部分产业开始向中西部转移。
 
  化工行业高能耗、高排放、带来不小的环境影响,但其高经济附加值又让人们趋之若鹜。废气、废水和废物是化工产业的主要污染物。其中,废气排放报了经收集处理后排放有组织排放,生产过程中或厂区内逸散出无组织排放两种方式。化工车间工作时产生大量废气,其中无机物经预处理被大致去除,主要剩余VOCs。尽管在生产装置等环节均采取密闭结构,并对VOCs进行收集处理,但是仍有大量物质散于空气环境中,难以做到万无一失。
 
  据相关数据统计,二氧化硫、氮氧化物、PM2.5分别在2006年、2012年、2015年达峰,到2020年分别下降了77%、32%和53%,其中二氧化硫和PM2.5排放量已降至百万吨级,但VOCs排放下降趋势仍不明显,排放量仍然是千万吨级。这一数据与化工厂排放息息相关。
 
  与此同时,VOCs是PM2.5、臭氧等形成的重要前体物,种类、来源繁多,治理困难。VOCs排放量过大且相对集中,在空气中进行复杂的光化学反应,进而产生臭氧污染。臭氧正逐渐取代PM2.5、PM10,成为城市主要污染物。化工产业迁移发生变化,但VOCs的排放数据高居不下,承载着大量化工厂的区域环境承压严重。
 
  精准治理交出“成绩单”
 
  持续开展VOCs监测是落实VOCs污染防治规划的前提,也是未来改善空气质量的重要方向。一系列VOCs监测和研究工作徐徐展开。目前,VOCs治理从工业源、移动源和面源入手,工业方面,重点关注从石化、化工;移动源方面则从机动车,尤其是汽油车的燃油、蒸发、尾气排放等方面加强治理。
 
  2017年底,在污染较重的京津冀、长三角、珠三角、成渝、关中、辽宁中南部、武汉及周边地区共78个城市开展对美国光化学评估监测网络(PAMS)重组和升级前规定监测的57种非甲烷烃组分和13种醛、酮类VOCs组分的手工监测。除手工监测外,19个直辖市、省会城市及计划单列市还开展VOCs组分的自动监测。
 
  基于手工、自动监测方案,大气VOCs监测网络雏形已建立。截至2020年第1季度,我国已有120个城市开展VOCs监测,其中54个城市开展手工监测,24个城市开展自动监测,42个城市同步开展手工、自动监测。
 
  从我国从事VOCs治理产业的主体看,其规模不断扩增。近年来从事VOCs治理、检测和服务企业大量涌现。截至2020年,全国从事VOCs治理相关的企业超2000家以上,其中治理企业约200家。
 
  顶层设计抓牢“主动权”
 
  但由于城市大气VOCs的业务化监测工作开展时间较短,还存在监测方法标准体系不完善、数据质量不高、数据挖掘与利用不够深入等问题,这就需要政策步步完善。
 
  2022年5月,生态环境部发布《2021中国生态环境状况公报》显示,与2020年相比,六项大气污染物浓度均下降。但是,目前我国城市环境空气质量总体仍未摆脱臭氧污染,这结论意味着VOCs治理任重道远。
 
  据生态环境部数据统计,我国VOCs排放源以工业源为主,约占总排放源的55.5%。对空气质量的影响明显。VOCs工业排放源在主要包括石油化工与煤化工、包装印刷、表面涂装等行业,年排放量均超过100万吨。工业排放源是VOCs治理的重点关注领域。
 
  《“十三五”挥发性有机物污染防治工作方案》、《打赢蓝天保卫战三年行动计划》、《重点行业挥发性有机物综合治理方案》、《2020年挥发性有机物治理攻坚方案》等多项助力VOCs治理政策相继发布,明确了VOCs治理的工作重点、核心环节,不断完善VOCs排放标准体系,层层加码污染防治行动力,打造适合现阶段国情的VOCs污染防治政策体系。
 
  生态环境部在生态环境部7月例行新闻发布会上表示,下一步将抓紧推动出台《空气质量全面改善行动计划》,强化PM2.5污染防治的同时,深入开展VOCs综合治理和源头替代,推进VOCs和NOx协同减排,争取到2025年,VOCs和NOx排放总量比2020年分别下降10%以上,实现PM2.5和O₃协同控制,全面改善环境空气质量。
 
  总体来看。VOCs的排放量尚多,“十四五”VOCs减排担子不轻。随着VOCs监测、网络技术的不断迭代以及大气环境立体综合监测体系的完善,将实现重点区域、重点行业、重点因子、重点时段VOCs监测全覆盖,实现更高质量、更有效率、更可持续、更为安全的生态环境经济协同发展社会。
 
  (资料来源:财新网、生态环境部、生态环境部环境工程评估中心、韦伯咨询等)
 
  原标题:化工产业转移加速 如何把好VOCs监测安全关?

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