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研究人员用螃蟹制出更环保电池

2022-09-02 15:30:34来源:cnBeta.COM 阅读量:17030

导读:汽车依靠电池供电,其不会吐出过多的污染,只是有一点需要注意。就像所有可充电产品一样,电动汽车的兴起取决于电池制造的上升。
  当谈到应对气候危机时,我们看到最近对电动汽车的推动是有希望的。跟标准汽车--它们向大气层排放化石燃料废气从而污染我们星球的防护罩并导致全球变暖--不同的是,电动汽车依靠电池供电,其不会吐出过多的污染。
 
  只是有一点需要注意。就像所有可充电产品一样,电动汽车的兴起取决于电池制造的上升。
 
  马里兰大学材料创新中心主任Liangbing Hu在一份新闻稿中说道:“大量的电池正在被生产和消耗从而引发了环境问题的可能性。如广泛用于锂离子电池的聚丙烯和聚碳酸酯分离器需要几百或几千年的时间来降解并增加了环境负担。”
 
  看起来Hu对电池难题有一个有趣的解决方案。在周四发表在《Matter》上的一篇论文中,Hu和其他研究人员介绍了他们发明的一种电池,它比锂离子电源更容易被生物降解。  这种电池比较特别的是,由螃蟹壳制成。
 
  电池的工作原理是使用一种叫做电解质的特殊物质,在负极和正极之间来回移动离子或带电粒子。所以把(+)和(-)放在正确的位置非常重要。
 
  电解液可以是多种不同的介质,但根据新研究的研究人员,许多电池使用易燃或腐蚀性的化学品来实现这一功能。然而化学品不容易被生物降解。相比之下,Hu和他的同事们为他们的电池使用了一种凝胶电解质,这种电解质存在于一种名为壳聚糖的生物材料中。据悉,壳聚糖很容易被生物降解。
 
  Hu说道:“壳聚糖是甲壳素的衍生产品。甲壳素有很多来源,包括真菌的细胞壁、甲壳类动物的外骨骼和乌贼的笔。”但据Hu说,甲壳素最丰富的来源位于那些甲壳类动物的外骨骼中,像粉红色的虾尾、深红色的龙虾甲壳还有蟹壳。
 
  那么知道在哪里可以找到这些外骨骼吗吗?“海鲜废料,你可以在你的桌子上找到它,”Hu说道。
 
  在某种程度上,该团队原型的这个方面同时解决了两个问题。根据《自然》在2015年的一项研究,全球产生了约600万至800万吨的废弃螃蟹、虾和龙虾壳。螃蟹的肉只占其质量的40%左右,所以这势必会造成相当多的食物浪费。
 
  该份报告继续指出,这些壳通常被倾倒在垃圾填埋场或海洋中 -- 这种处理方式成本很高,每吨可能超过100美元,且对环境不利,因为垃圾填埋场本身也间接导致有害气体排放。
 
  因此,从生产可生物降解电池的角度来看,如果所有这些昂贵的、需要扔掉的外壳都能被重新利用进而变成对保护我们的星球有用的东西那该是一件多么好的而是情。
 
  根据该团队的新研究,其电池原型中使用的壳聚糖在五个月内完全分解,并留下了一种叫做锌的金属成分--而不是像标准电池那样的铅或锂--这实际上是可以回收的。
 
  该原型在1000次循环后的能源效率为99.7%,这意味着它是在电网中储存风能或太阳能的一个可行选择。这对锌电池的世界来说是一个很大的进步,因为尽管这些电力存储方案并不完全是新的但它们一直以效率很低而闻名。研究人员指出,从螃蟹壳中提取的成分可能是能将它们提升到新水平的缺失部分
 
  Hu表示,就目前而言,将壳聚糖作为电池中的电解质意味着约2/3的电池可以被生物降解,但在未来,该团队希望能解决剩下的1/3。Hu说道:“在未来,我希望电池中的所有成分都是可生物降解的。不仅是材料本身,而且还有生物材料的制造过程。”
 
  原标题:研究人员用螃蟹制出更环保电池

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