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莱特莱德:想要石油化工废水“无处遁逃” 还需打出“组合拳”

2022-07-27 15:24:37来源:莱特莱德 阅读量:16031

导读:石油化工成分复杂、难处理,需要组合工艺,如物化法预处理+厌氧+好氧二级处理,若要回用,再结合吸附、膜分离等深度处理工艺。
  近年来,随着科学技术的快速发展,石油化工企业的生产和建设也迈上了一个新台阶,其内部的废水处理系统也在不断升级。石油化工行业的经济效益是不可否认的,但对环境的破坏也不容小觑,单就一个污染水源的处理排放问题就很难得到妥善的解决。
 
  石油化工成分复杂、难处理
 
  1、废水中的污染物成分复杂。石油炼制、石油化工、石油化纤、化肥、合成橡胶等生产过程中产生的废水,除含有各种有机物和有机化工产品,如醚、酮、醛、烃、有机酸、油剂、聚合物(聚酷、纤维、塑料、橡胶)和无机物外,还有油、硫、氨氮、SS酸、碱、盐等。当生产不正常或在开机和停产检修之间,排出的废水中污染物含量变化范围较大,往往会造成冲击性负荷。
 
  2、废水难处理,石油化工废水中的主要污染物,一般可概括为烃类、烃类化合物和可溶性有机物及无机物成分。其中,可溶性无机组分主要是硫化氢、氨化合物和微量重金属,可溶性有机组分,大部分可以生物降解,少数难以生物降解或不能生物降解,如原油、汽油、丙烯等。
 
  石油化工废水处理工艺
 
  对于难处理的石油化工废水,我国通常采用生物处理为主,物理和化学方法为预处理和深度处理。
 
  物理法处理技术主要有膜分离法、气浮法、隔油法和吸附法。其中,膜分离技术和吸附法对石油化工废水中的臭味和色度有较好的处理效果,对有机物和悬浮物的去除率也较高。但运行成本高,膜和活性炭需要定期更换,且容易造成二次污染。其中,活性炭吸附一般用于后续的深度处理。
 
  化学法处理技术主要有:氧化法和絮凝法。氧化法可以有效地去除水中的颜色和气味,也可以氧化废水中难降解的物质,对水量和水质的变化适应性强,反应速度快。其中,臭氧氧化法使用较多,多用于石油化工废水的深度处理。絮凝法利用混凝剂去除水中的有机物、浊度和色度,常用的混凝剂主要是无机药剂(如硫酸铝、氯化铁等)和有机药剂(聚丙烯酰胺等)。
 
  “组合”工艺让石油化工废水“无处遁逃”
 
  石油化工废水成分复杂,污染物浓度高,难以降解,对环境污染严重,单一处理工艺难以满足水质排放要求。在实际应用中,油分离、气浮、絮凝、厌氧、好氧、吸附、膜分离等应用较多,其组合方式高效实用,逐渐兴起。
 
  下面小编为大家介绍一种采用物化法预处理,厌氧+好氧二级处理,若要回用,再结合吸附、膜分离等深度处理的组合工艺
 
  石油化工废水处理“组合”工艺主要分为一级处理、二级生化处理和回用装置,一级处理通过隔油池、气浮池去除水中的油污和悬浮物,二级处理通过生化处理可降低95%的COD,通过一级和二级处理,生化部分出水COD达到50mgL以下,电导率达到2500us/cm以下。其中回用装置的主要设施包括中速过滤器、臭氧接触氧化池、盘片过滤器、超滤膜装置、保安过滤器和反渗透膜装置。
 
  生态文明建设是大势所趋,在保护环境的前提下发展生产,也是我们必须认识和做到的。石油化工行业在生产中获得丰厚利润的同时,也越来越注意到生产过程中的废水排放问题,而研究出高效、经济、节能的处理技术,是石油化工行业未来的重要发展方向。
 
  本文系莱特莱德投稿,不代表本站的观点和立场。文章内容仅供参考,若涉及侵权,请及时联系本站处理。

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